example of that phenomenon. Official or business language embraces documents, commercial correspondence, acts and laws, materials of conferences and negotiations, specifications, equipment manuals and everyday speech situations, in other words, we will find here legal, scientific, technical and everyday speech characteristics.
Another general peculiarity is that business language is explicit, concise and exact. This is expressed in the syntactical and lexical units used in business language: the Infinitive, the Gerund, the Participle, the Passive Voice (67% against 2% in literary writings), nouns are used as attributes in pre-position in 62% against 37% of literary writings, etc. Translators/ interpreters dealing with this kind of materials should bear in mind that their translation must be absolutely exact because it is often used as the basis for some very important decisions; it ensures the authenticity of the texts of treaties, agreements, contracts, etc. This fact naturally dictates the choice of methods and means of translation. Here we can see the tendency to render not only the meaning and general style but even the “wording” of the original text, some places of which may seem unimportant, purely formal at first glance.
Still another general characteristic feature of official and business language is that it is void of emotional or expressive colouring. Business English has its own peculiar emotional colouring but it cannot be transferred mechanically into the Ukrainan/Russian languages. Translators/ interpreters must remember it at all times and even more so because the Ukrainian or Russian business languages are more impersonal and official. In other words we have to neutralize the English units in the process of translation.
The mother company bore a daughter in the Far East, granted her a dowry of 2, 000, 000 pounds sterling and christened her…
The sentence can be translated only as: “Ця компанія організувала на Далекому Сході дочерню компанію і виділила їй капітал у 2 млн. фунтів стерлінгів; нова компанія була названа... ”
The author did not aim to introduce any emotional colouring into the text. We find this figurativeness of speech in many English terms and terminological word-combinations: hot atom радіоактивний атом, to label мітити радіоактивним ізотопом, breathing jet engine повітряно-реактивний двигун, 3900-5500m abyss, зона мовчання dead space, запобіжна деталь fool-proof part, рятувальний жилет Mae West, літак, планер flying coffin. Sometimes we can even find idiomatic word-combinations in English business writings:
W. Germany’s Siemens AG, a heavyweight in medical electronics…
The new bipolar approach can become a real Cinderella in the production…
Very impressive is the mushrooming influence of these devices on designs of microchips.
Semiconductor designers are up to their old tricks again.
They are cooking up a new generation of large-scale-integrated devices.
The idioms are also rendered with the help of neutral Ukrainian/Russian units.
These are the most general peculiarities of Business English while specific lexical peculiarities are: terms and terminological word-combination/words and words of general vocabulary with new meanings (neologisms), abbreviations, borrowings, traditional patterns or cliches, systems of weights and measures, etc.
Terms or terminological word-combinations. The most obvious peculiarity of Business English is a wide usage of terms or terminological word-combinations. Terms are words or word-combinations usually defined as monosemantic which have strictly specified meaning in this or that field of human activities. They can designate or describe notions, processes and names of things found there. To correctly understand the meaning of a particular term the translator must know the field of human activities to which the term belongs. Any term must be analysed as a word with a fixed technical meaning which however can change its content in the context of a particular field of human activities. Morphologically terms can be divided into:
- simple – circuit ланцюг, feeder фідер, invoice рахунок-фактура;
- compound – flywheel маховик, clock-work часовий механізм, deadline останній строк;
- terminological word-combinations – load governor регулятор потужності, earth fault замикання на землю, to delay delivery затримати поставку, competitive company конкурентноспроможна компанія.
Scientific and technical terms include:
1.Many words of the general vocabulary that acquire the meanings specific for a certain field of science or technology. In this case the meaning of the term becomes one of the meanings of the word: shoe туфля has several technical meanings – кулісний камень, ползун, кінцева муфта кабеля, ріжучий башмак опускної крепі, грохот; arm рука is used in a specific meaning ричаг, кронштейн, стріла, спина, коса розпорка, рукав; pin болт, чека, палець, штирь, нагель, шпілька, булавка, штіфт, цапфа, шкворень, ось, шійка, п’ята, шплінт. Other examples of this process are: flywheel маховик; monkey баба (для забівки свай) ; horse рама; pig болванка, чушка; frog хрестовина; bush втулка, stiff leg жорстка опора, deadline останній строк.
2.General terms used in several fields of science and technology: power amplifier cервопідсилювач підсилювач потужності; rectifier ректифікатор, очисник; детектор; бурав для запальних шнурів; e-mail електронна пошта.