management, marketing, accounting, and finance. Within each of these fields there are specific jobs in which one can specialize. For example, within the field of marketing one can specialize in market research, advertising, buying, selling, or distributing. The table below shows general career opportunities that are available in the various fields of business.
Jobs in businesses and offices range from administration to general clerical work. These jobs exist in both small and large companies. Some typical occupations are cashier, purchasing agent, typist, and complaint clerk. This cluster includes word processing, accounting and financial detail, management, personnel, and materials and product handling. Although most jobs are done indoors, mail carriers and material handlers often work outside. A lot of occupations – managers, accountants, analysts – require higher education, others like secretaries and clerks – at least secondary school.
In choosing a business career, there are several questions one may want to ask. Firstly, does the work interest you? Are there any areas of business for which you have an aptitude or special capability? What are the opportunities involved, such as salary, a chance for advancement, and demand for the job? Answers to these questions and careful planning will help you to choose a successful career in business.
Task 1. Learn the following words and word-combinations:
surplus – (неразподілений) прибуток;
to charge а price – призначати ціну;
retained profit – неразподілений прибуток;
revenue – валовий прибуток, річний прибуток;
total costs – загальні витрати;
turnover – оберт, оборачиваемость (капиталу) ;
total sales – загальний обсяг продажу;
to line the pockets – привласнити.
Task 2. Answer the questions on the text:
- What is the traditional definition of business?
- What is one of the modern definitions of business?
- What areas and activities does business embrace?
- What does production involve? Give examples: а) from the text; b) of your own.
- What does sale mean?
- Can we consider services as goods?
- What is the most important factor in business?
- What is profit?
- How can companies dispose of their profits?
- What are the principal fields of business?
Task 3. Substitute the following definitions with the words listed below:
Business, revenue, goods, distribution, services, marketplace, net profit, production, price, a business.
- money charged for an item of goods;
- commercial company;
- producing, buying, and selling of goods and services for profit;
- manufacturing of raw materials into finished products;
- money left over when all expenses are paid;
- products that people either need or want to purchase;
- movement of finished products from the factory to the marketplace;
- public place where people buy and sell goods;
- activities that people or groups perform for other people or organizations;
- income received during a particular period.
Task 4. Classify the following items either as goods or services. Compare your results with other students. Motivate your point of view.
advertising agency; letter delivery; personal banking; insurance; office computer system; airline ticket; software; TV commercial; dictionary; coffee maker; customs clearance; sports club shipment; french fries; home security system.
CLASSIFICATION of ORGANIZATION CULTURES
(After Prof С. Handy)
Power Cultures (силовий тип відносин).
In these cultures self-reliant and highly competitive self development provides the basis of relations. Manager’s success is related to his / her charisma and influence, rather than to his / her knowledge andexperience. The style of the chief executive is the model for оthег managers. In organizations of this type managers shall be tough-minded and aggressive.
Role Cultures (ролєвий тип).
In these cultures manager’s role is completely related to his / herplace within а cenralized system. His / her success depends on how well this manager adheres to rules, procedures, and precedents.
Individualism and aggression are not valued in these cultures. Employees in these organizations should not get out of the limits of their roles.
Task Cultures (тип відносин, спрямований на виконання завдань).
In organizations of this type they value everything that makes it possible “to get the work done”. The main concern in these organizations is with successful fulfilment оf their projects. Manager’s success is related to his / her knowledge and experience required to achieve tasks, rather than to meet the requirements of his / her role.
Individual Cultures (відносини індивідуальностей).
In organizations of this type the most possible freedom of expression is valued. Effectiveness of any activity in these organizations is rated by how much the activity satisfies the staff, rather than by how well it conforms to business plans. Independence, creativity, and experiment are also valued in these organizations.
Task 1. Look at the business card and answer the following questions:
John G. Smith
9 North Road, Brighton, ВNI 5JF, England
Phone: (0273) 543359 Fax: (0273) 559364
Whose card is this?
What is he?