used in this country: status quo, quorum, persona grata (non grata), terra incognita, tabula rasa, honoris causa, homo sapiens, de facto, de jure.
If we compare English and Ukrainian original texts, we will notice a great number of Latin and French words and word-combinations in English documents such as: fait accompli факт, що стався, condition sine qua non обов’язкова умова, mutatis mutandis з відповідними змінами, error facti фактична помилка, par excellence за перевагою, modus vivendi тимчасове рішення, modus operandi спосіб дій, ad hoc специальный, bona fide чистосердно/дійсно, per capita на душу населення, versus проти, ultima ratio головна підстава.
The meanings of these units can be found in special dictionaries and reference literature.
Traditional patterns. It became generally accepted practice to use traditional patterns in scientific, technical and business writings. Some of these traditional patterns have been created for many years and that is why they have sometimes somewhat archaic colouring: aforesaid, above-mentioned, hereby, hereinafter named, herein, henceforth. As a result we have many word-combinations and patterns (literally translated) which would be absolutely unacceptable in the process of translation of other styles and genres. They happen especially often in different international documents: treaties, agreements, contracts, letters, etc. and the translator / interpreter must know and use them in his translations to bar the possibility of misreading or misinterpretation of the document.
Other patterns are simply functional but also used very widely: in terms of за рахунок / використовуючи, in order to з метою, in question / at issue яке розглядається, in the course of time з часом, on the part з чієгось боку, due to завдяки, provided that за умови, що, in centers між центрами, to turn as far as it will go повернути до упору.
Grammar peculiarities. Among these we should bear in mind a wide usage of non-finite forms of verbs (the Infinitive, the Gerund, the Participle) and structures with them, of the Passive Voice structures, very long and complicated sentence structures, nouns used as attributes in pre-position in word-combinations, omission of some grammatical elements (articles, auxiliary verbs) in certain documents.
FIELDS of BUSINESS
Business is the word that is commonly used in different languages. But exactly what does it mean? Traditionally, business simply meant exchange or trade for things people wanted or needed. Today one of the possible definitions of business is production, distribution, and sale of goods and services for profit. To examine this definition, we will look at its various parts.
First, production is creation of services or changing of materials into products. One example is the conversion of iron ore into metal car parts. Next, these products need to be moved from the factory to the market place. This is known as distribution.
Third is sale of goods and services. Sale is exchange of products or services for money. Goods are products that people either need or want; for example, cars can be classified as goods. Services, on the other hand, are activities that people or groups perform for other people or organizations. For example, an auto mechanic performs services when he repairs a car.
Business, then, is а combination of аll these activities: production, distribution, and sale. However, there is one more important factor. This factor is creation of profit or economic surplus. А major goal in functioning of а business is making profit. Profit is а difference between the price charged for an item and the cost of the item to the seller: profit = price – cost.
In business, profit is most frequently considered in terms of net or retained profit. This is the amount of money left over at the end of the financial year when аll the expenses are paid: net profit = revenue – total costs.
Revenue is sometimes referred to as а turnover, sales, or income. It refers to the total sales over а period of time (often а month or а year). It can be expressed as: revenue = price x quantity.
So, the price charged multiplied by the number of units sold over а period of time is the total sales value, or revenue.
Profit, contrary to а popular belief, is rarely used “to line the pockets” of the owners of а business. It is used instead for reinvestments, buying of new machinery, and improving of the future prospects of the enterprise.
Business is an increasingly important activity throughout the world today. Consequently, the opportunities for a business career have grown in variety and number. Originally the word “career” meant “road” or “path”; today it means a “progress through life” or a “job path”. There are four broad fields, or areas, of business that offer exciting careers: