style="text-align: justify;">3.Special terms that are used only in one field of science or technology: transformer трансформатор, diesel locomotive тепловоз, impedance імпеданс, interlocker централізаційний апарат, availability of goods наявність товарів.
4.Terms used in different fields of science or technology that have two or more meanings: current density плотність потоку, плотність току; level рівень, нивелір, підйом.
Translators / interpreters must remember that today with the increased specialization of all sectors of human life due to technical and scientific progress, the problem of understanding and rendering terminology has to be addressed in somewhat new dimension for terms may have several meanings in different sectors or subject fields of human activities: valve клапан (machine building), електронна лампа (radio) ; power потужність, енергія (physics), ступінь (mathematics) ; yield доход від цінних паперів (finance), врожайність, врожай (agriculture), продуктивність (industry), видобуток (extraction of natural resources), вихід (processing industry), осідання (mining), потужність, тротиловий еквівалент вибухівки (military), пружинити (engineering). All the meanings of table are even hard to count.
Abbreviations and acronyms. Abbreviations are widely used in Business English and they can be of the following types:
- letter abbreviations: E. = east; R. = railway; e. m. f. = electromotive force; LOC = letter of commitment; h. a. = hoc anno; CD =compact disc; EU = European Union; GDP = gross domestic product; f. o. b. = free on board; ac = account current; MP = Member of Parliament (MEP) ;
- syllable abbreviations: maxcap = maximum capacity, radsta = radio station, intercom = intercommunication, biopic = biographical picture;
- mixed: N-bomb = nitrogen bomb, H-bomb = hydrogen bomb, CP-1=Chicago Pile#1, A-pole;
- contractions: inv = invoice, ref. = reference, tox. = toxic, mag. = magazine, Pool = Liverpool, Sac = Sacramento, Chi. = Chicago, camp. = campaign, ciggy = cigar, deli = delicatessen, limo = limousine, teeny = teenager, in. = inch, sub = subject, subeditor, sublimation, submarine, subscription.
Abbreviations can be roughly grouped into: 1) аbbreviations of terms and terminological word-combinations; 2) geographical names; 3) names of companies and organizations.
Geographical names can be names of countries, their administrative divisions respectively, or localities: UK United Kingdom, G. B. Great Britain, USA United States of America, Ua Ukraine, Col. Colorado, Mo Missouri, PA Pensylvania, Ont. Ontario, Beds. Bedfordshire, Glos. Gloustershire, Ches. Cheshire, W. Wales, R. I. Rhode Island, C. I. Channel Islands, DC District of Columbia.
Besides the abbreviations of geographical names we often find the abbreviations of names of organizations, companies, etc: UPI United Press International, UNO United Nations Organization, ECM European Common Market, EU European Union, IMF International Monetary Fund, ВПК військово промисловий комплекс, NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization, IMCO Intergovernmental Maritime Consulting Organization, ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization, InterCom 2007; BBC British Broadcasting Corporation, BEA British Air Ways, ICI Imperial Chemical Industries, GM General Motors, Nabisco National Biscuit Corporation, CAT Caterpillar, Свема Светочувствительные материалы, BrStd British Standard.
In the process of translation we should remember that these abbreviations, most of them at least, have traditional or official equivalents in our language which must be used in the translation text: GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade – ГАТТ Генеральна угода про тарифи та торгівлю, IMF International Monetary Fund – Світовий Валютний Фонд.
In those cases when the names of the organizations, companies have no traditional or official equivalents in our language the translator/interpreter can give the full translation of the name according to the rules of translation of equivalent-lacking units.
We must also remember that most abbreviations can have several meanings:
a has up to 30 meanings: acceleration, absolute, accomodation, administration, aircraft, ampere, amplitude, angstrom, anode, area, atom, automobile, etc. ; am above mentioned, ante meridian; av according to value (по вартості), acid value (кислотне число), actual velocity (дійсна швидкість), atomic volume (атомна ємність) ; ASA American Standards Association, Acoustical Society of America, Atomic Scientists Association (UK), Advertising Standards Authority (UK) ; RTC Railway Transport Corps, Recruit Training Centre, Reserve Training Corps, Royal Tanks Corps.
In every particular case we must be absolutely sure what meaning is used and only the context gives the answer and helps to choose it adequately.
Borrowings. Borrowings are a characteristic feature of the English language in general and of special writings in particular. So it is natural for scientific, technical and business writings to have a great number of borrowings from Latin, French, German and other languages in their original form. Generally speaking translators should preserve the part of the original text given in a foreign language unchanged in the translation text but that holds true only for literary translation. In the Ukrainian business language these patterns are rarely used and will not be understood by the receptors. That is why they are translated more often than not. There exists only a small group of such word-combinations which are traditionally known and